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Abbreviations and acronyms are introduced on the page indicated in parentheses.

2SLS two-stage least squares, an instrumental variables estimator that replaces the regressor being instrumented with fitted values from the first stage (p. 132)

ALS a study by Joshua D. Angrist, Victor Lavy, and Analia Schlosser on the causal link between quantity and quality of children in Israeli families (p. 127)

BLS Boston Latin School, the top school in the Boston exam school hierarchy (p. 164)

C&B College and Beyond, a data set (p. 52)

CEF conditional expectation function, the population average of Y. with X. held fixed (p. 82)

CLT Central Limit Theorem, a theorem which says that almost any sample average is approximately normally distributed, with the accuracy of the approximation increasing as the sample size increases (p. 39)

DD differences-in-differences, an econometric tool that compares changes over time in treatment and control groups (p. 178)

HIE Health Insurance Experiment, a large randomized trial conducted by the RAND Corporation that provided treated families with different types of health insurance coverage (p. 16)

ITT intention-to-treat effect, the average causal effect of an offer of treatment (p. 119)

IV instrumental variables, an econometric tool used to eliminate omitted variables bias or attenuation bias due to measurement error (p. 98)

JTPA Job Training Partnership Act, an American training program that included a randomized evaluation (p. 122)

KIPP Knowledge Is Power Program, a network of charter schools in the United States (p. 99)

LATE local average treatment effect, the average causal effect of treatment on compliers (p. 109)

LIML limited information maximum likelihood estimator, an alternative to two-stage least squares with less bias (p. 145)

LLN Law of Large Numbers, a statistical law according to which sample averages approach the corresponding population average (expectation) as the sample size grows (P – 13)

MDVE Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment, a randomized evaluation of policing strategies to combat domestic violence (p. 116)

MLDA minimum legal drinking age (p. 148)

MVA motor vehicle accidents (p. 159)

NHIS National Health Interview Survey, a data set (p. 3)

OHP Oregon Health Plan, the Oregon version of Medicaid, for which eligibility was partly determined by a lottery (p. 25)

OLS ordinary least squares, the sample analog of population regression coefficients; we use OLS to estimate regression models (p. 58)

OVB omitted variables bias, the relationship between regression coefficients in models with different sets of covariates (p. 69)

QOB quarter of birth (p. 229)

RD regression discontinuity design, an econometric tool used when treatment, the probability of treatment, or average treatment intensity is a known, discontinuous function of a covariate (p. 147)

RSS residual sum of squares, the expected (population average of) squared residuals in regression analysis (p. 86)

TOT treatment effect on the treated, the average causal effect of treatment in the treated population (p. 114)

WLS weighted least squares, a regression estimator that weights observations summed in the RSS (p. 202)

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